ISO paper size 210 x 297mm used for Letterhead.
A transparent sheet placed over originals or artwork, allowing the designer to write instructions and\or indicate a second color for placement.
Papermade from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper.
An acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates prior to etching.
Color produced by light falling onto a surface, as compared to subtractive color. The additive primary colors are red, green and blue.
Against the Grain:
At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to with the grain. Also called across the grain and cross grain. See also Grain Direction.
Pen-shaped tool that sprays a fine mist of ink or paint to
retouch photos and create continuous-tone illustrations.
Any change made by the customer after copy or
artwork has been given to the service bureau,
separator or printer. The change could be in copy,
specifications or both. Also called AA, author
alteration and customer alteration.
An offset printing plate having a treated surface in
order to reduce wear for extended use.
Fine powder lightly sprayed over the printed surface of
coated paper as sheets leave a press. Also called dust,
offset powder, powder and spray powder.
Roughest finish offered on offset paper.
Coating in a water base and applied like ink by a printing
press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.
All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations,
intended for printing. Also called art.
Author’s Alterations (AA’s):
At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests
to be made concerning original art provided. AA’s are
considered an additional cost to the client usually.
(1) To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. (2) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side.
Copy pasted up on the mounting board of a mechanical,
as compared to overlay art. Also called base mechanical.
Negative made by photographing base art.
The standard size of sheets of paper used to calculate
basis weight in the United States and Canada.
In the United States and Canada, the weight, in pounds,
of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size. Also
called ream weight and substance weight (sub weight).
In countries using ISO paper sizes, the weight, in grams,
of one square meter of paper. Also called grammage and
Usually a department within a printing company
responsible for collating, folding and trimming
various printing projects.
Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the
joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire,
glue or other means.
Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset
press, that receives the inked image from the plate and
transfers it to the surface to be printed.
Category of paperboard ranging in thickness from 15
to 48 points.
Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page
A page number not printed on the page. (In the book arena, a blank page traditionally does not print a page number.)
Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed
with ink or foil.
Sticking together of printed sheets causing damage
when the surfaces are separated.
An enlargement, usually used with raphic images or
Prepress photographic proof made from stripped
negatives where all colors show as blue images on
white paper. Because ‘blueline’ is a generic term for
proofs made from a variety of materials having identical
purposes and similar appearances, it may also be called
a blackprint, blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint,
diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position proof, silverprint,
Dylux and VanDyke.
A description or commentary of an author or book
content positioned on the book jacket.
General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover or
200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file
folders, displays and post cards. Also called paperboard.
The main text of work not including the headlines.
Blocks of repetitive type used and copied over and over
Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing
and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication
paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.
Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but
not yet covered.
Category of paper suitable for books, magazines,
catalogs, advertising and general printing needs.
Book paper is divided into uncoated paper (also
called offset paper), coated paper (also called art
paper, enamel paper, gloss paper and slick paper)
and text paper.
The decorative design or rule surrounding matter on
(1) a repeating registration problem in the printing stage of production. (2) Customer unhappy with the results of a printing project and refuses to accept the project.
General term referring to paper 6 points or thicker with
basis weight between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm).
Used for products such as index cards, file folders and
The term used to indicate work printed on one of a large
sheet of paper.
Carton of paper from which some of the sheets have been
sold. Also called less carton.
A photographic print created on bromide paper.
The effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing and
using a metallic powder.
Build a Color:
To overlap two or more screen tints to create a new
color. Such an overlap is called a build, color build,
stacked screen build or tint build.
Thickness of paper relative to its basic weight.
A dot or similar marking to emphasize text.
Burst Perfect Bind:
To bind by forcing glue into notches along the spines
of gathered signatures before affixing a paper cover.
Also called burst bind, notch bind and slotted bind.
Register where ink colors meet precisely without overlapping
or allowing space between, as compared to lap
register. Also called butt fit and kiss register.
To subcontract for a service that is closely related to the
business of the organization. Also called farm out. Work
that is bought out or farmed out is sometimes called
outwork or referred to as being out of house.
C1S and C2S:
Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.
To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it
between rollers during manufacturing.
(1) Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed in
thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch
(ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages
per centimeter (ppc). (2) Device on a sheetfed press
that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that
detects missing signatures or inserts.
Mechanicals, photographs and art fully prepared for
reproduction according to the technical requirements
of the printing process being used. Also called
finished art and reproduction copy.
Business using a process camera to make photostats,
halftones, plates and other elements for printing. Also
called prep service and trade camera service.
Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of
images from one sheet to another with pressure from
writing or typing.
Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere from
20,000 to 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45, 454 kilos),
depending on which mill or merchant uses the term.
Selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds
(60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to
5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their
To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of
binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also
called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.
Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages of a
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper
against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is
Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from
35# to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogs
(1) Alternate term for elliptical dot, so called because
midtone dots touch at two points, so look like links in
a chain. (2) Generic term for any midtone dots whose
(1) Widely spaced lines in laid paper. (2) Blemishes on
printed images caused by tracking.
Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that
absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun,
and wind making printed images look dusty. Also called
(1) Production copy of a publication verified by the
customer as printed, finished and bound correctly.
(2) One set of gathered book signatures approved by
the customer as ready for binding.
Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image
to create a hairline trap or to outline. Also called
shrink and skinny.
Strength of a color as compared to how close it seems
to neutral gray. Also called depth, intensity, purity and
A mark used to indicate closing space between
characters or words. Usually used in proofing stages.
Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black),
the four process colors.
Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per
inch (26, 34 or 40 lines centimeter).
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that
improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce
coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull
To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.
Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back of
signatures indicating exact position in the collating stage.
Refers to amounts of process colors that simulate the
colors of the original scene or photograph.
Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but
without type. Also called shells.
In multicolor printing, the point, line or space at which
one ink color stops and another begins. Also called break
Unwanted color affecting an entire image or portion of
Color Control Bar:
Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet
to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain.
Also called color bar, color guide and standard offset
To adjust the relationship among the process colors to
achieve desirable colors.
Instructions in computer software that allow users
to change or correct colors. Also called HLS and HVS
Color Electronic Prepress System:
Computer, scanner, printer and other hardware and
software designed for image assembly, color correction,
retouching and output onto proofing materials,
film or printing plates. Abbreviated CEPS.
The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a
specific device, such as a computer screen, or system,
such as four-color process printing.
Brand name for an overlay color proof. Sometimes used
as a generic term for any overlay color proof.
Way of categorizing and describing the infinite array of
colors found in nature.
(1) Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer
to divide continuous-tone color images into four
halftone negatives. (2) The product resulting from
color separating and subsequent four-color process
printing. Also called separation.
Order in which inks are printed. Also called laydown
sequence and rotation.
Change in image color resulting from changes in
register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color
Film (transparent) used as art to perform color separations.
To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic
comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack
of paper. Also called plastic bind and GBC bind
(a brand name).
Printer producing a wide range of products such as
announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery,
business forms, books and magazines. Also called job
printer because each job is different.
The second or additional flat(s) used when making
composite film or for two or more burns on one
Mechanical on which copy for reproduction in all colors
appears on only one surface, not separated onto overlays.
Composite art has a tissue overlay with instructions that
indicate color breaks.
Film made by combining images from two or more
pieces of working film onto one film for making
Proof of color separations in position with graphics
and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and
(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements,
such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for
printing. (2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type,
graphics and other elements on the page.
Simulation of a printed piece complete with type,
graphics and colors. Also called color comprehensive
To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or
days before printing so that its moisture level and
temperature equal that in the pressroom. Also called
cure, mature and season.
Device with lights, timing mechanism and vacuum frame
used to make contact prints, duplicate film, proofs and
plates. Also called platemaker and vacuum frame.
All photographs and those illustrations having a range
of shades not made up of dots, as compared to line copy
or halftones. Abbreviated contone.
The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight
Business that makes products such as boxes, bags,
envelopes and displays.
Surface or frame on a process camera that holds copy
in position to be photographed.
Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink
coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
Category of thick paper used for products such as
posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books.
Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its
title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover
1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside
back, Cover 4=outside back.
Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along the spine of a
book to increase strength of binding. Also called gauze,
mull and scrim.
Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature
extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called
feathering, outpush, push out and thrust.
See also Shingling.
Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to
be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.
Type or art that continues from one page of a book or
magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also
called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.
To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to
ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
Customer Service Representative:
Employee of a printer, service bureau, separator or other
business who coordinates projects and keeps customers
informed. Abbreviated CSR.
Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press,
therefore also the length of the printed sheet that the
press cuts from the roll of paper.
Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.
Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and
unusual sized printing projects.
A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes.
The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing.
Abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman
One of the four process colors. Also known as process
Technique of reducing the amount of storage required to
hold a digital file to reduce the disk space the file requires
and allow it to be processed or transmitted more
To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface.
Also called tool.
Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking
machine instead of being cleanly cut. Also called
Instrument used to measure density. Reflection densitometers
measure light reflected from paper and other
surfaces; transmission densitometers measure light
transmitted through film and other materials.
Difference between the darkest and lightest areas
of copy. Also called contrast ratio, copy range and
(1) Regarding ink, the relative thickness of a layer of
printed ink. (2) Regarding color, the relative ability of
a color to absorb light reflected from it or block light
passing through it. (3) Regarding paper, the relative
tightness or looseness of fibers.
Technique of using a personal computer to design
images and pages, and assemble type and graphics,
then using a laser printer or imagesetter to output the
assembled pages onto paper, film or printing plate.
Device Independent Colors:
Hules identified by wavelength or by their place in
systems such as developed by CIE. ‘Device independent’
means a color can be described and specified without
regard to whether it is reproduced using ink, projected
light, photographic chemistry or any other method.
To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using
Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and
Chemical process of reproducing line copy and making
halftone positives ready for paste-up.
Dot created by a computer and printed out by a laser
printer or imagesetter. Digital dots are uniform in size,
as compared to halftone dots that vary in size.
Page proofs produced through electronic memory
transferred onto paper via laser or ink-jet.
Direct Digital Color Proof:
Color proof made by a laser, ink jet printer or other
computer-controlled device without needing to make
separation films first. Abbreviated DDCP.
A letter fold at the side of one of the creases, an
Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper
than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering
contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread
and press gain.
Relative size of halftone dots as compared to dots of
the screen ruling being used. There is no unit of
measurement to express dot size. Dots are too
large, too small or correct only in comparison
to what the viewer finds attractive.
Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners,
display devices such as monitors, and output devices
such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors.
Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch.
Double Black Duotone:
Duotone printed from two halftones, one shot for highlights
and the other shot for midtones and shadows.
To print a single image twice so it has two layers of ink.
To expose film or a plate twice to different negatives and
thus create a composite image.
A method of recording electronically (disk, CD, floppy)
using a modified frequency to allow more data storage.
Double Dot Halftone:
Halftone double burned onto one plate from two halftones,
one shot for shadows, the second shot for midtones
Printing defect appearing as blurring or shadowing of the
image. Doubling may be caused by problems with paper,
cylinder alignment, blanket pressures or dirty cylinders.
Considered as “dots per square inch,” a measure of
output resolution in relationship to printers,
imagesetters and monitors.
Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substrate
specified for a job. Also called pulldown.
In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.
Halftone in which contrast has been
Halftone dots or fine lines eliminated from highlights by
overexposure during camera work.
Phenomenon of printed ink colors becoming less dense
as the ink dries.
Using metal plates in the printing process, which are
etched to .15mm (.0006 in) creating a right reading
plate, printed on the offset blanket transferring to paper
without the use of water.
To print over dry ink, as compared to wet trap.
Dual-purpose Bond Paper:
Bond paper suitable for printing by either lithography
(offset) or xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP
Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother
than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and
Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup.
Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two
halftone negatives, each shot to emphasize different
tonal values in the original.
Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two
thinner sheets, usually of different colors. Also called
double-faced paper and two-tone paper.
Offset press made for quick printing.
Brand name for photographic paper used to make blue
line proofs. Often used as alternate term for blueline.
Electronic Front End (Electronic Composition):
General term referring to a prepress system based on
Electronic Image Assembly:
Assembly of a composite image from portions of other
images and/or other page elements using a computer.
Mechanical exclusively in electronic files.
(1) Publishing by printing with device, such as a
photocopy machine or ink jet printer, driven by a
computer that can change the image instantly from
one copy to the next. (2) Publishing via output on fax,
computer bulletin board or other electronic medium,
as compared to output on paper.
To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface.
Also called cameo and tool.
Emulsion Down/Emulsion Up:
Film whose emulsion side faces down (away from the
viewer) or up (toward the viewer) when ready to make a
plate or stencil. Abbreviated ED, EU. Also called E up/
down and face down/face up.
Casting of light-sensitive chemicals on papers, films,
printing plates and stencils.
Encapsulated PostScript file:
Computer file containing both images and PostScript
commands. Abbreviated EPS file.
Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book
to its cover. Also called pastedown or end papers.
Smooth finish on uncoated book paper; smoother than
eggshell, rougher than smooth.
Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an
image cut into its surface.
Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually
used to transfer post script information from one
program to another.
Abbreviation for envelope.
Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints
and may cost the same. . Also called comparable stock.
Price that states what a job will probably cost.
Also called bid, quotation and tender.
The individual performing or creating the “estimate.”
To use chemicals to carve an image into metal, glass
Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also
called foredge. Also, an abbreviation for typeface
referring to a family of a general style.
Halftone in one ink color printed over screen tint of a
second ink color. Also called dummy duotone, dougraph,
duplex halftone, false duotone, flat tint halftone and
halftone with screen.
Fast Color Inks:
Inks with colors that retain their density and resist
fading as the product is used and washed.
Component of a printing press that moves paper into the
Soft woven pattern in text paper.
Side of the paper that was not in contact with the
Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to
Ink color used in addition to the four needed by fourcolor
Thickness of film. The most common gauge for graphic
arts film is 0.004 inch (0.1 mm).
Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for
protection or increased gloss.
Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing,
as compared to coarse papers and industrial papers.
Also called cultural papers and graphic papers.
Screen with ruling of 150 lines per inch (80 lines per
centimeter) or more.
Size of product after production is completed, as
compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.
(1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for
trimming, folding, binding and all other post press
Refers to ability of film to be registered during stripping
and assembly. Good fit means that all images register to
other film for the same job.
Costs that remain the same regardless of how many
pieces are printed. Copyrighting, photography and
design are fixed costs.
(1) Any color created by printing only one ink, as
compared to a color created by printing four-color
process. Also called block color and spot color.
(2) color that seems weak or lifeless.
Flat Plan (Flats):
Diagram of the flats for a publication showing imposition
and indicating colors.
Size of product after printing and trimming, but before
folding, as compared to finished size.
Method of printing on a web press using rubber or
plastic plates with raised images. Also called aniline
printing because flexographic inks originally used
aniline dyes. Abbreviated flexo.
To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish.
flooding with ink is also called painting the sheet.
Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as
compared to overhang cover. Also called cut flush
Leaf, at the front and back of a casebound book that is
the one side of the end paper not glued to the case.
Used in making type more legible by lowering density of
an image, while allowing the image to show through.
To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat
Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp.
A bindery machine dedicated to folding printed materials.
With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold is
to occur, usually located at the top edges.
Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a
map or chart. Also called gatefold and pullout.
Folio (page number):
The actual page number in a publication.
Size, style, shape, layout or organization of a layout or
Lightweight bond, easy to perforate, made for business
forms. Also called register bond.
Roller(s) that come in contact with the printing plate,
bringing it ink or water.
Each side of a signature. Also spelled forme.
For Position Only:
Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on
mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not
intended for reproduction. Abbreviated FPO.
In the case book arena, the binding process which
involves folding, rounding, backing, headbanding and
Mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing
plate to prevent ink from adhering to the nonimage area.
Also called dampener solution.
Trough or container, on a printing press, that holds
fluids such as ink, varnish or water. Also called duct.
Four-color Process Printing:
Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and
yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color
process printing, full color printing and process printing.
Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with
chemicals and washed free of impurities, as compared
to groundwood paper. Also called woodfree paper.
A printed sheet, printed one side only, folded with two
right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.
Halftone ranging from 0 percent coverage in its highlights
to 100 percent coverage in its shadows.
Black separation made to have dots throughout the
entire tonal range of the image, as compared to half-scale
black and skeleton black. Also called full-range black.
Proof of type from any Source, whether metal type or
photo type. Also called checker and slip proof.
(1) To halftone or separate more than one image in only
one exposure. (2) To reproduce two or more different
printed products simultaneously on one sheet of paper
during one press run. Also called combination run.
A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter
in overlapping layers.
Signatures assembled next to each other in the proper
sequence for binding, as compared to nested. Also called
Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to
produce a very faint image.
(1) Phenomenon of a faint image appearing on a
printed sheet where it was not intended to appear.
Chemical ghosting refers to the transfer of the faint
image from the front of one sheet to the back of
another sheet. Mechanical ghosting refers to the faint
image appearing as a repeat of an image on the same
side of the sheet. (2) Phenomenon of printed image
appearing too light because of ink starvation.
Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a
Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and
letterpress) such as the ink will dry without penetration.
Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the
printing industry (e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating,
General term used to distinguish between or among
printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on
context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating,
finish or brand of paper.
Graduated Screen Tint:
Screen tint that changes densities gradually and
smoothly, not in distinct steps. Also called degrade,
gradient, ramped screen and vignette.
Predominant direction in which fibers in paper
become aligned during manufacturing. Also called
Grain Long Paper:
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension
of the sheet. Also called long grain paper and narrow
Grain Short Paper:
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension
of the sheet. Also called short grain paper and wide
Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).
Graphic Arts Film:
Film whose emulsion yields high contrast images
suitable for reproduction by a printing press, as
compared to continuous-tone film. Also called litho
film and repro film.
The crafts, industries and professions related to designing
and printing on paper and other substrates.
Arrangement of type and visual elements along with
specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes
that, when combined, convey a visual message.
Visual elements that supplement type to make printed
messages more clear or interesting.
Method of printing using metal cylinders etched with
millions of tiny wells that hold ink.
Printed cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that
accurately, reproduce a neutral gray image.
Gray Component Replacement:
Technique of replacing gray tones in the yellow, cyan and magenta films, made while color separating, with black ink. Abbreviated GCR. Also called achromatic color removal.
Number of distinct gray tones that can be reproduced
by a computer.
Strip of gray values ranging from white to black. Used
by process camera and scanner operators to calibrate
exposure times for film and plates.
Also called step wedge.
Alternate term for binding edge when referring to perfect
Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is
ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.
Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, thus
going first through the press. Also called feeding edge
and leading edge.
Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp
created when wood chips are ground mechanically rather
than refined chemically.
The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per
In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or
the binding edges.
Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line
or close register. The meaning depends on who is using
the term and in what circumstances.
Black separation made to have dots only in the
shadows and midtones, as compared to full-scale
black and skeleton black.
Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that
breaks light into dots. Also called contact screen and
(1) To photograph or scan a continuous tone image to
convert the image into halftone dots. (2) A photograph
or continuous-tone illustration that has been halftoned
and appears on film, paper, printing plate or the final
Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots
printed. Also called halation. The halo itself is also
called a fringe.
Halftone dots with no halos or soft edges, as compared
to soft dots.
Mechanical consisting of paper and/or acetate and
made using paste-up techniques, as compared to
At the top of a page, the margin.
Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails
(bottoms) of other pages.
Web press equipped with an oven to dry ink, thus able
to print coated paper.
Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas
of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or
blanket. Also called bulls eye and fish eye.
Color reproduced using six, eight or twelve separations,
as compared to four-color process.
Photo whose most important details appear in the
Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as
compared to midtones and shadows.
Perfect bound cover scored 1/8 inch (3mm) from the
spine so it folds at the hinge instead of, along the
edge of the spine.
Abbreviation for hue, lightness, saturation, one of the
color-control options often found in software, for design
and page assembly. Also called HVS.
Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air
bubble caused incomplete draw-down during contact
platemaking, leaving an area of weak ink coverage or
visible dot gain.
Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a variety
of printing jobs. Also called floor sheet.
A specific color such as yellow or green.
The actual area on the printed matter that is not
restricted to ink coverage.
Laser output device using photosensitive paper or film.
Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they
will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are
folded and bound.
Cylinder, on a press, that pushes paper against the
plate or blanket, thus forming the image.
Also called impression roller.
(1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals
one press sheet passing once through a printing unit.
(2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals
one press sheet passing once through the press.
To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such
as imprinting an employee’s name on business cards.
Also called surprint.
Relationship of the densities and dot gains of
process inks to each other and to a standard density
of neutral gray
Reservoir, on a printing press, that holds ink.
Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing
ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper.
Also called holdout.
Ink Jet Printing:
Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through
computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.
Form (side of the press sheet) whose images all appear
inside the folded signature, as compared to outer form.
Department of an agency, business or association
that does printing for a parent organization.
Also called captive printer and in-house printer.
Within a publication, an additional item positioned into
the publication loose (not bound in).
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces
with two levels, having inked areas lower than noninked
areas. Gravure and engraving are the most common
forms of intaglio. Also called recess printing.
Color proof of separations shown on one piece of
proofing paper, as compared to an overlay proof.
Also called composition proof, laminate proof, plastic
proof and single-sheet proof.
Printed pages loosely inserted in a publication.
A number assigned to a published work and usually
found either on the title page or the back of the title page.
Considered an International Standard Book Number.
Job Lot Paper:
Paper that didn’t meet specifications when produced,
has been discontinued, or for other reasons is no longer
considered first quality.
A number assigned to a specific printing project in a
printing company for use in tracking and historical
Form used by service bureaus, separators and printers
to specify production schedule of a job and the materials
it needs. Also called docket, production order and work
A vibration machine with a slopping platform to even-up
stacks of printed materials.
Lines on a mechanical or negative showing the exact size,
shape and location of photographs or other graphic
elements. Also called holding lines.
Key Negative or Plate:
Negative or plate that prints the most detail, thus whose
image guides the register of images from other plates.
Also called key printer.
(1) The screw that controls ink flow from the ink fountain
of a printing press. (2) To relate loose pieces of copy to
their positions on a layout or mechanical using a system
of numbers or letters. (3) Alternate term for the color
black, as in ‘key plate.’
Kiss Die Cut:
To die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer, of
self-adhesive paper. Also called face cut.
Lightest possible impression that will transfer ink to a
Strong paper used for wrapping and to make grocery
bags and large envelopes.
Abbreviation for black in four-color process printing.
Hence the ‘K’ in CMYK.
Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel
lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines
are close together and run against the grain; chain lines
are farther apart and run with the grain.
A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to
usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing
protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually
accents existing color, providing a glossy (or lens) effect.
Artist style in which width is greater than height.
(Portrait is opposite.)
Register where ink colors overlap slightly, as compared
to butt register.
Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well
through laser printers.
Ink that will not fade or blister as the paper on which it
is printed is used in a laser printer.
The edge of a sheet of paper feeding into a press.
Lay Flat Bind:
Method of perfect binding that allows a publication to lie
fully open. (Also known as Lay Flat Perfect Binding.)
A sample of the original providing (showing) position
of printed work (direction, instructions) needed and
Amount of space between lines of type.
One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf
is one page.
Strong, smooth bond paper used for keeping business
records. Also called record paper.
Directions about a specific matter (illustrations) and how
to use. In regard to maps and tables, an explanation of
signs (symbols) used.
Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of
letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel
fold and wrap around fold.
In North America, 8 1/2’ x 11’ sheets.
In Europe, A4 sheets.
Method of printing from raised surfaces, either metal
type or plates whose surfaces have been etched away
from image areas. Also called block printing.
Book paper with basis weight less than 40# (60 gsm).
Substance in trees that holds cellulose fibers together.
Free sheet has most lignin removed; groundwood paper
Any high-contrast image, including type, as compared to
continuous-tone copy. Also called line art and line work.
Negative made from line copy.
Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern
of linen cloth.
Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract
ink and whose nonimage areas repel ink. Nonimage
areas may be coated with water to repel the oily ink or
may have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink.
Area on a mechanical within which images will print.
Also called safe area.
A company, partnership or corporate creation (design)
that denotes a unique entity. A possible combination of
letters and art work to create a “sole” entity symbol of
that specific unit.
Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages
in a publication (e.g., trim-4-drill-3).
Proof of a halftone or color separation that is not assembled
with other elements from a page, as compared to
composite proof. Also called first proof, random proof,
scatter proof and show-color proof.
Lens built into a small stand. Used to inspect copy, film,
proofs, plates and printing. Also called glass and linen
Low Key Photo:
Photo whose most important details appear in the
Machine Glazed (MG):
Paper holding a high-gloss finish only on one side.
One of the four process colors.
(1) All activities required to prepare a press or other
machine to function for a specific printing or bindery
job, as compared to production run. Also called setup.
(2) Paper used in the makeready process at any stage
in production. Makeready paper is part of waste or
Order for paper that a mill makes to the customer’s specifications,
as compared to a mill order or stock order.
Die that applies pressure during embossing or
debossing. Also called force card.
An author’s original form of work (hand written, typed or
on disk) submitted for publication.
Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Instructions written usually on a “dummy.”
To prevent light from reaching part of an image, therefore
isolating the remaining part. Also called knock out.
Paper or plastic plate used on a duplicating press.
A form of a four-color-process proofing system.
Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated
To bind using a comb, coil, ring binder, post or any other
technique not requiring gluing, sewing or stitching.
Color breaks made on the mechanical using a separate
overlay for each color to be printed.
Lines or patterns formed with dots creating artwork for
Camera-ready assembly of type, graphic and other
copy complete with instructions to the printer. A hard
mechanical consists of paper and/or acetate, is made
using paste-up techniques, and may also be called an
artboard, board or paste-up. A soft mechanical, also
called an electronic mechanical, exists as a file of type
and other images assembled using a computer.
Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that
Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose
color and gloss simulate metal.
In a photograph or illustration, tones created by dots
between 30 percent and 70 percent of coverage, as
compared to highlights and shadows.
Mil (1/1000 Inch):
The thickness of plastic films as printing substrates are
expressed in mils.
Phenomenon of droplets of ink being thrown off the
roller train. Also called flying ink.
A reproduction of the original printed matter and
possibly containing instructions or direction.
Mostly used over phone lines, a device that converts
electronic stored information from point a. to point b.
Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen
tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when
a pattern in a photo, such as a plaid, interfaces with a
halftone dot pattern.
Paper size (7’ x 10’) and envelope shape often used for
Spotty, uneven ink absorption. Also called sinkage.
A mottled image may be called mealy.
A specific type of glue used for books binding and
personal pads needing strength.
Printing in more than one ink color (but not four-color
process). Also called polychrome printing.
Weight of 1,000 sheets of paper in any specific size.
Very light brown color of paper. May also be called
Signatures assembled inside one another in the proper
sequence for binding, as compared to gathered.
Also called inset.
Gray with no hue or cast.
Paper used in printing newspapers. Considered low
quality and “a short life use.”
Flaw in a photograph or halftone that looks like a drop of
oil or water.
In the book binding process, a stage where air is expelled
from it’s contents at the sewing stage.
Web press without a drying oven, thus not able to print
on coated paper. Also called cold-set web and open web.
Printing using lasers, ions, ink jets or heat to transfer
images to paper.
Light blue that does not record on graphic arts film,
therefore may be used to preprint layout grids and write
instructions on mechanicals. Also called blue pencil,
drop-out blue, fade-out blue and nonrepro blue.
Printing on products such as coasters, pencils, balloons,
golf balls and ashtrays, known as advertising specialties
Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a
blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.
A specific lightweight type (kind) of paper usually used
in the past for air mail.
Seldom used today (in the typewriter era).
(1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that
prevents printing on one side from showing through
the other side. (2) Characteristic of ink that prevents
the substrate from showing through.
(1) Not transparent. (2) To cover flaws in negative with
tape or opaquing paint. Also called block out and spot.
Open Prepress Interface:
Hardware and software that link desktop publishing
systems with color electronic prepress systems.
Form (side of a press sheet) containing images for the
first and last pages of the folded signature (its outside
pages) as compared to inner form.
Halftone in which background has been removed or
replaced to isolate or silhouette the main image. Also
called knockout halftone and silhouette halftone.
Color proof consisting of polyester sheets laid on top
of each other with their image in register, as compared
to integral proof. Each sheet represents the image to
be printed in one color. Also called celluloid proof and
Layer of material taped to a mechanical, photo or proof.
Acetate overlays are used to separate colors by having
some type or art on them instead of on the mounting
board. Tissue overlays are used to carry instructions
about the underlying copy and to protect the base art.
To print one image over a previously printed image, such
as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.
Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy
varies in the printing industry. Advance questions avoid
Total number of pages that a publication has.
Also called extent.
Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the
finished page complete with elements such as headings,
rules and folios.
One side of a leaf in a publication.
In the book arena, the numbering of pages.
Sheet printed with ink edge to edge, as compared to spot
color. The painted sheet refers to the final product, not
the press sheet, and means that 100 percent coverage
results from bleeds off all four sides.
One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack
brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper.
A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.
A printing plate made of strong and durable paper in the
short run offset arena (cost effective with short runs).
Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will
produce 6 panels.
Any sheet larger than 11’ x 17’ or A3.
Chipboard with another paper pasted to it.
To paste copy to mounting boards and, if necessary,
to overlays so it is assembled into a camera-ready
mechanical. The mechanical produced is often
called a paste-up.
To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and
are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind,
cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind,
perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover. See also Burst
Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a
single pass. Also called duplex press and perfector.
On a “dummy” marking where the perforation is to
Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a
line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off
a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical
Proofreader mark meaning printer error and showing a
mistake by a typesetter, prepress service or printer as
compared to an error by the customer.
Engraving done using photochemistry.
Brand name for a diffusion transfer process used to make positive paper prints of line copy and halftones. Often used as alternate term for photostat. Abbreviated PMT.
Brand name for a diffusion transfer process used to
make positive paper prints of line copy and halftones.
Often used as alternate term for PMT.
A unit of measure in the printing industry. A pica is
approximately 0.166 in. There are 12 points to a pica.
Phenomenon of ink pulling bits of coating or fiber away
from the surface of paper as it travels through the press,
thus leaving unprinted spots in the image area.
Artwork, used in a previous job, to be incorporated in a
Small holes (unwanted) in printed areas because of a
variety of reasons.
Technique of registering separations, flats and printing
plates by using small holes, all of equal diameter, at the
edges of both flats and plates.
Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer,
scanner or other digital device.
Also called pel.
Printing method whose image carriers are level
surfaces with inked areas separated from noninked
areas by chemical means. Planographic printing includes
lithography, offset lithography and spirit duplicating.
(1) In quick printing, a process camera that makes plates
automatically from mechanicals. (2) In commercial
lithography, a machine with a vacuum frame used to
expose plates through film.
Stripped negatives or positives fully prepared for
Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image
to be reproduced using a printing press.
Color that the customer considers satisfactory even
though it may not precisely match original samples,
scenes or objects.
Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System.
The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone
Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors.
Abbreviation for photomechanical transfer
(1) Regarding paper, a unit of thickness equating 1/1000
inch. (2) Regarding type, a unit of measure equaling 1/12
pica and .013875 inch (.351mm).
An art design in which the height is greater than the
width. (Opposite of Landscape.)
Photocopy or PMT of a photo or illustration made to size
and affixed to a mechanical.
Film that prevents light from passing through images,
as compared to negative film that allows light to pass
through. Also called knockout film.
To bind using a screw and post inserted through a hole
in a pile of loose sheets.
Any color proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays,
as compared to a press proof printed using ink.
Also called dry proof and off-press proof.
Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking
and other prepress functions performed by the printer,
separator or a service bureau prior to printing.
Also called preparation.
To print portions of sheets that will be used for later
Event at which makeready sheets from the press are
examined before authorizing full production to begin.
Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper
specified for the job. Also called strike off and trial proof.
(1) Amount of time that one printing job spends on
press, including time required for makeready. (2) Time
of day at which a printing job goes on press.
Quantity at which unit cost of paper or printing drops.
Usually in the book arena, consecutive pages as they
appear on a flat or signature.
Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as
compared to reader spreads.
Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing
uses paper or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and
commercial lithography use metal plates; flexography
uses rubber or soft plastic plates. Gravure printing uses
a cylinder. The screen printing is also called a plate.
Assembly of fountain, rollers and cylinders that will print
one ink color. Also called color station, deck, ink station,
printer, station and tower.
Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate
an image from an original such as a film negative or
positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.
Camera used to photograph mechanicals and other
camera-ready copy. Also called copy, camera and
graphic arts camera. A small, simple process camera
may be called a stat camera.
Process Color (Inks):
The colors used for four-color process printing: yellow,
magenta, cyan and black.
Press run intended to manufacture products as specified,
as compared to makeready.
Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up
manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks.
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results
on press and record how a printing job is intended to
appear when finished.
Round device used to calculate percent that an original
image must by reduced or enlarged to yield a specific
reproduction size. Also called percentage wheel, proportion
dial, proportion wheel and scaling wheel.
Paper made in weights, colors and surfaces suited to
books, magazines, catalogs and free-standing inserts.
Subjective term relating to expectations by the customer,
printer and other professionals associated with a printing
job and whether the job meets those expectations.
(1) Sheet folded twice, making pages one-fourth the
size of the original sheet. A quarto makes an 8-page
signature. (2) Book made from quarto sheets,
traditionally measuring about 9’ x 12’.
Printing using small sheetfed presses, called duplicators,
using cut sizes of bond and offset paper.
Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.
Stationery or other forms of stock having a strong
percentage content of “cotton rags.”
Technique of putting ink colors next to each other in
the same ink fountain and oscillating the ink rollers to
make the colors merge where they touch, producing a
Raster Image Processor:
Device that translates page description commands into
bitmapped information for an output device such as a
laser printer or imagesetter.
Mechanicals made in two page spreads as readers would
see the pages, as compared to printer spread.
500 sheets of paper.
New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.
Products, such as fabrics, illustrations and photographic
prints, viewed by light reflected from them, as compared
to transparent copy. Also called reflex copy.
Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep
flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called crossmarks
and position marks.
To place printing properly with regard to the edges of
paper and other printing on the same sheet.
Such printing is said to be in register.
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces
with two levels having inked areas higher than
noninked areas. Relief printing includes block printing,
flexography and letter press.
Ability of a device, such as an imagesetter, to produce
film or plates that yield images in register.
General term for xerography, diazo and other methods of
copying used by designers, engineers, architects or for
general office use.
An image, such as the GATF Star Target, that permits
evaluation of resolution on film, proofs or plates.
Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen,
disc, tape or other medium.
Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink
around its outline, thus allowing the underlying color or
paper to show through and form the image. The image
‘reverses out’ of the ink color. Also called knockout
Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive
Copy that reads correctly in the language in which it is
written. Also describes a photo whose orientation looks
like the original scene, as compared to a flopped image.
Printing press which passes the substrate between two
rotating cylinders when making an impression.
Round Back Bind:
To casebind with a rounded (convex) spine, as compared
to flat back bind.
Mask on a mechanical, made with rubylith, that creates a
window on film shot from the mechanical.
Map or drawing given by a printer to a stripper showing
how a printing job must be imposed using a specific
press and sheet size. Also called press layout, printer’s
layout and ruleout.
Line used as a graphic element to separate or organize
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the
spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet
stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.
Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.
To identify the percent by which photographs or art
should be enlarged or reduced to achieve, the correct
size for printing.
Electronic device used to scan an image.
To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more
easily and accurately. Also called crease.
Angles at which screens intersect with the horizontal
line of the press sheet. The common screen angles for
separations are black 45 degree, magenta 75 degree,
yellow 90 degree and cyan 105 degree.
Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen
tint allows to print. Also called screen percentage.
Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink
through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.
Number of rows or lines of dots per inch or centimeter in
a screen for making a screen tint or halftone. Also called
line count, ruling, screen frequency, screen size and
Color created by dots instead of solid ink coverage.
Also called Benday, fill pattern, screen tone, shading,
tint and tone.
Placing signatures or inserts in magazines or catalogs
according to demographic or geographic guidelines.
Usually in the book arena, a publication not having
a cover stock. A publication only using text stock
A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed
item capable of travel in the mailing arena independently
Art with elements that print in the base color on one
surface and elements that print in other colors on other
surfaces. Also called preseparated art.
Usually in the four-color process arena, separate film
holding qimages of one specific color per piece of film.
Black, Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. Can also separate
specific PMS colors through film.
Printing method whose image carriers are woven fabric,
plastic or metal that allow ink to pass through some
portions and block ink from passing through other
portions. Serigraphic printing includes screen and
Business using imagesetters to make high resolution
printouts of files prepared on microcomputers.
Also called output house and prep service.
Undesirable transfer of wet ink from the top of one sheet
to the underside of another as they lie in the delivery
stack of a press. Also called offset.
Hue made darker by the addition of black, as compared
Darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as
compared to midtones and high-lights.
Press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a
Technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set
of plates, then the other side of the sheet with a set of
different plates. Also called work and back.
Allowance, made during paste-up or stripping, to
compensate for creep. Creep is the problem; shingling
is the solution. Also called stair stepping and
To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as
compared to saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and
Printed sheet folded at least once, possibly many times,
to become part of a book, magazine or other publication.
Compound mixed with paper or fabric to make it stiffer
and less able to absorb moisture.
Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original
run positioned between the “printed run” for a variety
Halftones dots with halos.
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage,
as compared to a screen tint.
Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products
as pigment vehicles, thus are easier on the environment.
Printer whose equipment, supplies, work flow and marketing
is targeted to a particular category of products.
Complete and precise written description of features of
a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade
and quantity, printing or binding method. Abbreviated
Instrument used to measure the index of refraction of
Highlight area with no printable dots, thus no detail, as
compared to a diffuse highlight. Also called catchlight
and dropout highlight.
Back or binding edge of a publication
To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic
looped through holes. Also called coil bind.
Technique of putting ink colors next to each other in the
same ink fountain and printing them off the same plate.
Split fountains keep edges of colors distinct, as compared
to rainbow fountains that blend edges.
(1) Different images, such as advertisements, printed in
different editions of a publication. (2) Printing of a book
that has some copies bound one way and other copies
bound another way.
Paper that, due to mistakes or accidents, must be thrown
away instead of delivered printed to the customer, as
compared to waste.
Spot Color or Varnish:
One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as
compared to flood or painted sheet.
(1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as
one visual or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly
enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline
trap with another image. Also called fatty.
Standard Viewing Conditions:
Background of 60 percent neutral gray and light that
measures 5000 degrees Kelvin the color of daylight on a
bright day. Also called lighting standards.
Statistical Process Control:
Method used by printers to ensure quality and delivery
times specified by customers. Abbreviated SPC.
Short for photostat, therefore a general term for an
inexpensive photographic print of line copy or halftone.
Step and Repeat:
Prepress technique of exposing an image in a precise,
multiple pattern to create a flat or plate. Images are said
to be stepped across the film or plate.
Popular sizes, weights and colors of papers available for
prompt delivery from a merchant’s warehouse.
Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a
printer from inventory at a warehouse, as compared
to a mill order.
Score created by pressing a string against paper, as
compared to scoring using a metal edge.
To assemble images on film for platemaking. Stripping
involves correcting flaws in film, assembling pieces of
film into flats and ensuring that film and flats register
correctly. Also called film assembly and image assembly.
In the book arena, hot die, foil or other means in creating
an image on a case bound book.
Alternate term for basis weight, usually referring to bond
papers. Also called sub weight.
Any surface or material on which printing is done.
Color produced by light reflected from a surface, as
compared to additive color. Subtractive color includes
hues in color photos and colors created by inks on paper.
Subtractive Primary Color:
Yellow, magenta and cyan. In the graphic arts, these are
known as process colors because, along with black, they
are the inks colors used in color-process printing.
Paper calendered using alternating chrome and fiber
rollers to produce a smooth, thin sheet.
Abbreviated SC paper.
Taking an already printed matter and re-printing again
on the same.
A book in a variety of forms, indicating specific stock in
specific colors in a specific thickness.
Abbreviation for specifications for web offset
publications, specifications recommended for web
printing of publications.
Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of
Tagged Image File Format:
Computer file format used to store images from scanners
and video devices. Abbreviated TIFF.
Grade of dense, strong paper used for products such
as badges and file folders.
Target Ink Densities:
Densities of the four process inks as recommended for
various printing processes and grades of paper.
See also Total Area Coverage.
Concerning a printing project’s basic details in regard to
its dimensions. A standard layout.
Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces
such as laid or linen. Some mills also use ‘text’ to refer to
any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether or not
its surface has a texture.
Method of printing using colorless resin powder that
takes on the color of underlying ink. Also called raised
Initial ideas jotted on virtually anything in regard to
initial concept of a future project.
Screening or adding white to a solid color for results of
lightening that specific color.
Usually in the book arena, adding an additional page(s)
beyond the normal process (separate insertion).
Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to
Total Area Coverage:
Total of the dot percentages of the process colors in the
final film. Abbreviated for TAC. Also called density of
tone, maximum density, shadow saturation, total dot
density and total ink coverage.
Plate that accents or prints a color that four-color
process printing cannot reproduce well enough or
at all. Also called kiss plate.
Service bureau, printer or bindery working primarily
for other graphic arts professionals, not for the general
Positive photographic image on film allowing light to
pass through. Also called chrome, color transparency
and tranny. Often abbreviated TX.
To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such
as varnish, over an ink. The first liquid traps the second
liquid. See also Dry Traps and Wet Traps.
The size of the printed material in its finished stage
(e.g., the finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).
Paper that has not been coated with clay.
Also called offset paper.
Technique of making color separations that increases the
amount of cyan, magenta or yellow ink in shadow areas.
Technique of making color separations such that the
amount of cyan, magenta and yellow ink is reduced in
midtone and shadow areas while the amount of black is
increased. Abbreviated UCR.
Universal Copyright Convention (UCC):
A system to protect unique work from reproducing
without knowledge from the originator. To qualify,
one must register their work and publish a (c) indicating
Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or
separation appear sharper (in better focus) than the
original photo or the first proof. Also called edge
enhancement and peaking.
Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed in
one impression on a single sheet. “Two up” or “three up”
means printing the identical piece twice or three times
on each sheet.
Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured
with ultraviolet light.
The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a color.
Also called brightness, lightness, shade and tone.
Liquid applied as a coating for protection and
Somewhat rough, toothy finish.
Brand name for high-contrast photographic paper.
Small area or room that is set up for proper viewing
of transparencies, color separations or press sheets.
Also called color booth.
See also Standard Viewing Conditions.
Halftone whose background gradually and smoothly
fades away. Also called degrade.
Decorative design or illustration fade to white.
Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton,
as compared to recycled paper.
Abbreviation for volatile organic compounds, petroleum
substances used as the vehicles for many printing inks.
To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers,
fountains, screens, and other press components.
Unusable paper or paper damage during normal
makeready, printing or binding operations, as compared
Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing
by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still
approximately 90 percent water.
Split of the paper as it travels through a web press,
causing operators to rethread the press.
Unacceptable stretching of paper as it passes through
Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it
into sheets after printing. Also called reel-fed press.
Web presses come in many sizes, the most common
being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages)
and full (also called 16-pages).
To print ink or varnish over wet ink, as compared to
(1) In a printed product, a die-cut hole revealing
an image on the sheet behind it. (2) On a mechanical,
an area that has been marked for placement of a piece
Side of the paper that rests against The Fourdrinier wire
during papermaking, as compared to felt side.
With the Grain:
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as
compared to against the grain. See also Grain Direction.
Made with chemical pulp only. Paper usually classified as
calendered or supercalendered.
Intermediate film that will be copied to make final film
after all corrections are made. Also called buildups.
Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually
a fine textured paper.
An image that is backwards when compared to the
original. Also called flopped and reverse reading.